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Calvinism – The doctrines and teachings of John Calvin or his followers, emphasizing predestination, the sovereignty of God, the supreme authority of the Scriptures, and the irresistibility of grace. Compare Arminianism. (calvinism. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/calvinism (accessed: August 01, 2015).)

The history of the CalvinistArminian debate begins in early 17th century in the Netherlands with a Christian theological dispute between the followers of John Calvin and Jacobus Arminius, and continues today among some Protestants, particularly evangelicals. The debate centers around soteriology, or the study of salvation, and includes disputes about total depravity, predestination, and atonement. While the debate was given its Calvinist-Arminian form in the 17th Century, issues central to the debate have been discussed in Christianity in some form since Augustine of Hippo‘s disputes with the Pelagians in the 5th century. [source link]

Pro-Calvinism Resources:

1.) Collection of very interesting articles @ DesiringGod.org 2.) The Fine Points of Calvinism by  3.) TULIP and Reformed Theology: An Introduction 4.) The Origin of Calvinism by  5.) A Defense of Calvinism by C. H. Spurgeon 6.) Debate between a Calvinist and an Atheist

Anti-Calvinism Resources:

1.) Examination and Refutation of 5 Point Calvinism 2.) Dr. Norman Geisler – Why I am Not a 5 Point Calvinist 3.) Calvinism Critiqued by a Former Calvinist 4.) Soteriology 101 5.) The Grace of God

Calvinism vs Arminianism – [SEE HERE] A comparative look from Steele, David N., and Curtis C. Thomas. “pp.144-147.” In Romans, an Interpretive Outline: A Study Manual of Romans, Including Charts on the Major Doctrines of the Epistle. Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed Pub. Co, 1963.

Canons of Dort – The Canons of Dort, or Canons of Dordrecht, formally titled The Decision of the Synod of Dort on the Five Main Points of Doctrine in Dispute in the Netherlands, is the judgment of the National Synod held in the Dutch city of Dordrecht in 1618–19. At the time, Dordrecht was often referred to in English as Dort.

Canon of Scripture – One of the terms used in describing the books that belong inScripture is the word canon. This comes from the Greek word kanon, meaning reed or measurement. A canonical book is one that measures up to the standard of Holy Scripture. Thus, the canon of Scripture refers to the books that are considered the authoritative Word of God. [source link]

Book Recommendation: The Canon of Scripture – F.F. Bruce

Capital Punishment and Christianity – Capital punishment or the death penalty is a legal process whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The judicial decree that someone be punished in this manner is a death sentence, while the actual enforcement is an execution. [Should a Christian support Capital punishment?]

Carmen Christi – The traditional title of the “hymn to Christ” found in Philippians 2:6-11,so named because some believe it was a very early and already existing Christian hymn or poem quoted by Paul in his epistle. [source link]

Carnal (kar’-nal): 1. pertaining to or characterized by the flesh or the body, its passions and appetites; sensual: carnal pleasures. 2. not spiritual; merely human; temporal; worldly: a man of secular, rather carnal, leanings. “carnal.” Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 25 Dec. 2014. . [read more]

Cessationism – In Christianity, cessationism is the doctrine that spiritual gifts such as speaking in tongues, prophecy and healing ceased with the original twelve apostles.See: [Theopedia] [Rebecca Stark’s Resource]

Chalcedonian Definition – This creed was adopted at the Fourth Ecumenical Council held at Chalcedon–located in what is now Turkey–in 451 as a response to certain heretical views concerning the nature of Christ. It established the orthodox view that Christ has two natures (human and divine) that are unified in one person. [source link] See: [CRTA]

Christ – First of all, the wordChrist” comes from christos, a Greek word meaning“anointed.” It is the equivalent of the word mashiach, or Messiah, in Hebrew. So, to be the Christ, or Messiah, is to be “the anointed one of God.” It is added, as an appellative (`Messiah’, ‘anointed’), to the proper name Ἰησοῦς a. Ἰησοῦς χριστός, Jesus the Christ. See: [5547 Christos] [ChristianAnswers.Net] [GotQuestions.Org] [Theopedia]

Christ Alone – Solus Christus (“Christ alone”) is one of the five solae that summarize the Protestant Reformers’ basic belief that salvation is through Christ alone and thatChrist is the only mediator between God and man.

Christology – The term “christology” (from Greek Χριστός (Christos) meaning “anointed one” or “Christ”) refers to the study of Christ. It often includes such topics as the preexistence and eternality of Christ, OT prophecies about Christ, Christ’s humanity, deity, and incarnation, as well as the issue of his temptations and sinlessness, his death, resurrection, ascension and exaltation, return, three-fold office, and states. [source link]

Christus Victor – (Christ the Victor) is a view of the atonement taken from the title of Gustaf Aulén‘s groundbreaking book, first published in 1931, where he drew attention back to the early church’s Ransom theory. In Christus Victor, the atonement is viewed as divine conflict and victory over the hostile powers that hold humanity in subjection. Aulén argues that the classic Ransom theory is not so much a rational systematic theory as it is a drama, a passion story of God triumphing over the powers and liberating humanityfrom the bondage of sin. As Gustav Aulén writes, “the work of Christ is first and foremost a victory over the powers which hold mankind in bondage: sin, death, and the devil.” (Aulén, Christus Victor, p. 20.)

Church Discipline – Though church discipline is a very difficult area of doctrine and one hard to practice, it nevertheless rests upon the divine authority of Scripture and is vital to the purity, power, progress, and purpose of the church. [source link]

Circumincession – the theological doctrine of the reciprocal existence in each other of the three persons of the Trinity (“Circumincession.” Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.)

Co-inherence – The term co-inherence was coined by the English writer and theologian Charles Williams (1886-1945) to describe a concept that was central to his rather unorthodox theology. This concept was derived from the Christian mystery of the unity of God in the three persons of the Trinity. Williams extended this to the idea that the unity of mankind consisted of their analogous co-inherence with  each other. Williams believed this applied to all of mankind. [source link]

Conscience – 1.) the condition of being conscious : the normal state of being awake and able to understand what is happening around you 2.) a person’s mind and thoughts 3.) knowledge that is shared by a group of people Reference: (“Consciousness.” Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 10 June 2016.)  See: 1.) IS THE MIND CREATED BY THE BRAIN? (LIKE H20 AND WETNESS) 2.)  The Soul Made Practical

Codex – A codex (plural of codices) is essentially an ancient book, consisting of one or more quires of sheets of papyrus or parchment folded together to form a group of leaves, or pages. This form of the book was not widely used in the ancient world until around the second century AD, when it slowly but steadily began to replace the traditional book form, the papyrus roll. [source link]

Common Grace – Refers to the grace of God that is common to all humankind. It is “common” because its benefits are experienced by the whole human race without distinction between one person and another, believers or unbelievers. It is “grace” because it is undeserved and sovereignly bestowed by God. In this sense, it is distinguished from the Calvinistic understanding of “special” or “saving” grace, which extends only to those whom God has chosen to redeem. [source link]

Communicable AttributesOmnipotence, omniscience, omnipresence, infinity, self-existence (aseity)—these are some of the incommunicable attributes of God, those attributes of our Creator that He does not share with His creatures. However, the Lord also has communicable attributes, or attributes that He does share with human beings to at least some degree. [source ]

Compatibilism – offers a solution to the free will problem, which concerns a disputed incompatibility between free will and determinism. Compatibilism is the thesis that free will is compatible with determinism. Because free will is typically taken to be a necessary condition of moral responsibility, compatibilism is sometimes expressed as a thesis about the compatibility between moral responsibility and determinism. [source link] See: [Theopedia] [Gotquestions.org]

Complementarianism – is the theological view that although men and women are created equal in their being and personhood, they are created to complement each other via different roles and responsibilities as manifested in marriage, family life, religious leadership, and elsewhere. It is rooted in more literal interpretations of the Creation account and the roles of men and women presented in Scripture. It is also known as the Traditionalist or Hierarchical view. Though the notion is found in other religions, this article focuses on how certain Christian groups understand their theology to require a complementarian view of gender. [source link]

Contextualiztion – Generally, to contextualize an idea, statement or event is to place it within its larger setting in which it acquires its true and complete meaning. Contextualization aids comprehension. [source link]

Continuationism – A Christian theological belief that the gifts of the Holy Spirit have continued to this present age, specifically those sometimes called “sign gifts” such as tongues and prophecy.Continuationism is the opposite of Cessationism. See: [Why I Am a Continuationist – Bro. Sam Storms] [Theopedia] [Debate on the continuation of prophecy – Ian Hamilton (Cambridge Presbyterian Church; Cambridge, England) and Wayne Grudem (Phoenix Seminary, Arizona) ]

Conversion – is the term used to describe the incursion of divine grace into human life and the transition from spiritual death to eternal life. [source linkSee also: Regeneration

Corporate Prayer – Corporate prayer is the term used to describe praying together with other people. See: 37 Bible verses about corporate prayer

Cosmological Argument – The cosmological argument is a closely related set of arguments for the existence of a First Cause (or instead, an Uncaused cause) to the universe, and by extension often used as arguments for the existence of an “unconditioned” or “supreme” being, usually then identified as God. (“Cosmological Argument.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 1, 2015.)

Onsite Article: First Cause Argument – Arne Verster  See also: The Thomistic Cosmological Argument

Off Site Resources: [Go to –> Resource Page]

Covenant – The Idea of Covenant. The term “covenant” is of Latin origin (con venire), meaning a coming together. It presupposes two or more parties who come together to make a contract, agreeing on promises, stipulations, privileges, and responsibilities. In religious and theological circles there has not been agreement on precisely what is to be understood by the biblical term. [source link]

creation ex nihilo – Creation out of nothing, or creation ex nihilo, is the belief thatGod created this world out of nothing, ex nihilo being Latin for “from nothing.” The Bibleis clear that God is the creator of this world (Gen 1:1; Job 38:1-42:6 among many others), but the issue of how he created this world is what is in question. Typically there are two main answers: (1) either God created this world from nothing, or (2) he created this world from pre-existing matter. In the second view God would be the organizer or the one who “ordered the chaos” of this world. [source link]

Credobaptism – the practice of baptizing only those who are able to make a profession of faith. The word, credo, comes from the Latin for “creed.” Credobaptism is also called Believer’s Baptism. Credobaptists maintain that it is improper to baptize infants (paedobaptism) since there is no account in Scripture where infants are baptized. Credobaptists would also practice baptism by immersion. [source link]

Crucifixion – the Crucifixion, the crucifying of Christ at Calvary, regarded by Christians as the culminating redemptive act of his ministry. (crucifixion. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc.(accessed: March 08, 2015).


How was Jesus’ death a sacrifice if He didn’t stay dead? by C. David Ragland, Jr.
Christ’s Baptism and Crucifixion:The Anointing and Enthronement of God’s Son by A. B. Caneday
The Bible: Matthew 27, Mark 15, Luke 23, John 19
Theopedia: Crucifixion
Holman Bible Dictionary: Cross, Crucifixion
Christian Apologetics and Research Ministy: The Crucifixion of Jesus
Bob Deffinbaugh: The Crucifixion

Cultural Mandate – The cultural mandate or creation mandate is the divine injunction found in Genesis 1:28, in which God (YHWH), after having created the world and all in it, ascribes to humankind the tasks of filling, subduing, and ruling over the earth. See: How the Cultural Mandate and the Great Commission Complement Each Other


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